Virtues Beyond Recognition?

Although most ethical discussions revolve around virtues such as fairness, honesty, and kindness, for instance, nevertheless, they almost always conclude with the mere formulation of general rules and principles, the New Zealand scholar Liezl Van Zyl observed. Trying to explain this disconnect motivated “Virtue Ethics. A Contemporary Introduction”, a slim volume where she suggests, among others, that virtue ethics’ central claims are at once frequently misunderstood, rejected, and accepted all for the wrong reasons.

I share Van Zyl’s puzzlement. As one educated in the Aristotelian-Thomistic (and Catholic) tradition of virtue ethics represented in recent times by Anscombe and MacIntyre, I repeatedly encounter propositions which seem not only foreign, but even contrary to what I have been taught. Let me name a few: the development of a non-normative virtue theory (as opposed to virtue ethics) focusing on the nature and possibility of virtue; the existence of a non-eudaimonistic virtue ethics (that is, not premised upon human flourishing as telos or final end); virtue ethics without rules (Taylor); virtue ethics without practical wisdom; sentimentalist (Slote) and pluralist (Swanton) virtue ethics; and consequentialist (Driver) and deontological (Johnson) virtue ethics. If the allegations on which these new varieties are based are true, then the rejection of the very existence of the virtues as character traits by social psychologists (Harman, Doris, Merrit) should surprise no one. Instead of hollowed-out virtues, we should really just be studying external contextual features and non-conscious cognitive processes that influence human conduct (“situationism”). Factors such as the number of people in a room, wearing white coats or lab gowns, the smell of freshly baked cookies, and finding loose change in phone booths, for example, can have much greater effects in shaping our behaviors.  

But is this, in fact, the case? Has virtue ethics evolved beyond what Aristotelian-Thomists would recognize? Does Aristotelian-Thomistic virtue ethics have the resources to clarify the points of confusion and respond to novel objections? And more importantly, would the effort matter for the actual practice of virtue ethics, specifically in the domain of business and management?

Below is a brief attempt to make sense of these quandaries. 

Virtue ethics, like all ethics, ought to be normative, providing guidance on what to do or to avoid. Virtues are not abstract ideas or even values simply describing mental qualities or states of affairs. As dispositions to action, they show human beings how to behave, changing the world (and themselves) to be more in accordance with their desires, for the better. Indeed, it would be difficult to justify inquiries into the possibility conditions and nature of the virtues without linking them to how best to live. 

And why do we pursue the virtues? We seek them primarily because we believe they lead to flourishing (eudaimonia), of which they are necessary, partially constitutive elements. Not that virtues are sufficient for flourishing (as Stoïcs defend), because this requires possessing adequate material resources besides, which virtues are unable to guarantee. As distinctly human excellences, virtues may be desirable in themselves, although not as the telos or final end for the sake of which we carry out all our activities. Flourishing alone can give that rational, overarching explanation which the chain of human activities warrants to make sense. In this regard, Aquinas’ main challenge in adopting Aristotle’s teachings was how to establish the connection between flourishing and the Christian God.

Virtues as excellent character traits do not exclude rule-following, particularly in the case of exceptionless prohibitions (“moral absolutes”). Certain actions (think torture) simply cannot be performed in a morally excellent way, such that they contribute to flourishing. Rules are an instructive first step in acquiring the virtues. Being virtuous implies at least having embodied the rules which define the scope of choiceworthy actions. Thus, virtues are not only compatible, but also complementary to observing the Decalogue or divine-positive law, natural law, and the eternal law. Virtues perfect adherence to the law.

Practicing the virtues would not be possible without practical wisdom (phronesis), the disposition to do the right thing, the right way, for the right reason, and in the right circumstances. We are all too familiar with counterexamples of right things done wrongly, with crooked intentions, in the improper time or place, and so forth. Think, for example, of a student correcting a teacher in class with ridicule, to show how smart they are and put the teacher to shame. Clearly, in this case, cleverness is not a virtue, as it is used not to help others, but to embarrass them. The student displays lack of practical wisdom. That is because virtues are exercised in particular situations, not in general, and therefore require circumspection. Moreover, as distinctively human excellences, the different virtues (justice, courage, temperateness, and so forth) require each other to some degree, and practical wisdom ensures that unity and harmony. If the student above were truly virtuous, she would show courage in pointing out the teacher’s errors, justice, because the truth is owed to all, and temperateness, by choosing to do so politely. How exactly to perform this action cannot be rule-driven, but only determined by practical wisdom.

Virtues are multi-track, covering a whole range of dispositions, beginning with inclinations or tendencies, through actions, habits, and characters to lifestyles, all of which are connected to each other by means of some sort of feed-back mechanism. The repetition of actions not only reinforces the tendencies from which they spring, but also serves to develop specific habits. Different habits, in turn, configure characters, orienting these to concrete lifestyle choices. Virtues represent excellence in each of these operational levels. Hence, it would be a mistake to call “virtuous” those who experience appropriate or benevolent emotions alone, as sentimentalist virtue ethics is wont (Slote), without evaluating the actions carried out, the habits developed, or the kind of character forged, and regardless of whether such emotions are in conformity with reason (feeling less sympathy for a fellow human in need than for a cat, for instance). Being motivated by sentiments of goodwill by itself is insufficient for virtue. Similarly, virtues cannot be reduced to “opportune responses” to the world’s demands in terms of values, status, relationships or bonds, and flourishing with nothing common between them, as Swanton’s pluralist virtue ethics contests. Virtues are not specific skill sets for reacting to peculiar exigencies of values, status, relationships, and flourishing, but the integral perfection of human beings as such.

Virtues focus primarily on agents, those who ultimately hope to reach moral perfection and achieve flourishing, not on actions. That’s why virtue ethics is different from consequentialism, which judges actions based on cost-benefit analyses, and from deontology, which evaluates actions depending on whether they are in accordance with laws and performed for love of them, out of a sense of duty. Certainly virtue ethics takes into account obedience to laws, as seen above, but always against a background of justice. Likewise, virtue ethics is sensitive to harms and benefits resulting from actions, but without ignoring what is morally right. 

From the aforementioned we can see how virtues allow sufficient control over our actions, and through time, even over our lives as a whole. We are not as helpless or manipulable as situationists assert, despite being subject to contextual or environmental features and non-cognitive biases in our actions. We still retain our freedom to choose our actions in accordance with what is rationally defensible, although both freedom and reason are affected by the level of virtue we have already achieved. The virtuous are not only able to think more clearly, but to act more freely as well, notwithstanding inescapable limitations.

Such an understanding of virtue ethics is consequential for its practice in business. First, because it furnishes a conceptual architecture that explains the role of business and its contribution to the common good of flourishing within communities. Wealth-creation ought never to be an end in itself. Secondly, it elucidates the protagonism of personal moral agents in the quest for integral moral perfection. Moral excellence is not simply a matter of acting in accordance with and for love of the law, but doing things well, and allowing for the transformation of desires and emotions (not suppressing them) until they are directed toward the good. And lastly, virtue ethics shows how personal moral excellence can be combined with professional entrepreneurial and managerial excellence. Business activities can be reimagined as MacIntyrean practices with their own internal goods, these goods can then be embedded in individual biographies amidst challenges of different role-conflicts, and such nested goods can finally be employed to further advance traditions for the shared benefit of individuals and communities. This triple scaffolding affords virtues substance and sociological relevance across a variety of domains. It also reveals the falsehood behind the dilemma between moral excellence, on the one hand, and business competitiveness, on the other.

“Who’s Minding the Kids?” Empathy for Parents Working from Home

Last Sunday, I checked in by phone on my friend and fellow faculty member whom I hadn’t seen during the whole of the previous week. As I feared, the whole family was on self-isolation. An aide at the nursery where they brought their kids had tested positive for Covid-19, and as a precautionary measure they all remained home while awaiting the results of their PCR tests.

At my university we took the most difficult option of simultaneously teaching in person and remote (because of which we got enrollments in record numbers despite a tuition fee hike). If necessary, faculty could always teach from their own homes or offices. So even if my colleague stayed home, there is no reason for anyone to complain. Or is there?

In tech companies such as Facebook, Twitter and Salesforce, workers with kids who stay home during this pandemic have been getting the heat from their co-workers without parenting duties. The latter complain they have to pick up the slack at work for the same pay. Accommodations for parents working from home eat up company resources with no added benefit. Some admit they simply feel lonely at their jobs and miss the company, taking a dip in their mental health. More than just friendly colleagues, they seem to consider coworkers as surrogate family almost. What’s telling is that these grievances come from employees who feel they have sacrificed their youth and fertility to the firm, renouncing to have families of their own. Now they feel shortchanged with the company’s attention and care being lavished on others. It’s understandable they feel jealous, but are they right? Is the arrangement unfair?

It would be wrong, perhaps even illegal, to discriminate against workers for becoming parents, forcing them to choose between their jobs or their children. If at all, working from home means working more, not less, as they also have to mind the kids and supervise their remote schooling. A common observation is that working from home often translates into extended hours as boundaries are blurred and job and family tasks bleed into each other. Then there’s the tendency to overcompensate at work, precisely because from home there’s no face-time with the boss. (The fear of being the last to get promoted or the first to get laid off helps.) Working moms with small children are especially vulnerable and run the risk of dropping out of employment altogether. Yet a study on Chinese call center workers reveals greater productivity (processing more calls) at home, not only due to longer hours, but also because it was more quiet; besides, people had fewer sick days.

There are several ways in which parents working from home become even less of a burden on company resources. They pay their own utilities such as electricity, water, and internet connection. They free up space for social distancing requirements and help shorten elevator queues at office towers. More importantly, it would be easier for them to remain Covid-free, and even if they fell sick, they wouldn’t contribute to spreading the virus.

Most of today’s workplaces, sadly, were designed for a different age, when professional, productive activity was centered on physical paper and measured by bundy clocks. Not that we’ve gotten rid of “paper-pushing”, but with the current IT and telecom infrastructure, most of it is done metaphorically now, through attachments. And communication, at least the transmission of data and information, of voice and images, has never been easier, both synchronously and asynchronously. So there’s hardly any need for people to be present in the same physical space for work to proceed. That’s the case even in education, it is claimed, although the jury is still out as to how effective the experiment will be. 

Then it’s not unfair to give working parents some margin to mind their children and work from home, especially during the pandemic. The same would apply to taking care of sick relatives or the elderly. Nothing due is taken away from the single, unattached employees or those without children by allowing for this set-up. If one day they were to find themselves in the same situation, they could also take advantage and benefit from the same largesse. Maybe a little more empathy among tech workers is in order.

As for my friend and his family, I’ve just learned they’re all free of Covid, thankfully.

Forgiveness and Flourishing

Flourishing is the basic premise of most ethical thought. Ethical commands and prohibitions, warnings and recommendations only make sense to the extent we desire to achieve flourishing, individually and as members of communities. A few years back, I wrote a book that tried to incorporate social science inputs from economics and experimental psychology with fundamental philosophical insights regarding virtue on how best to reach flourishing. I explored the effects of income (both absolute and relative), pleasures and satisfactions, work and leisure, and the quality of institutions (families, religious, and political), among others, on our shared quest for the good life. However, I failed to sufficiently take into account the imperfect, fragile, and oftentimes broken condition of human nature as found and manifested in each of us. I forgot to make room for forgiveness and I now attempt to remedy this major oversight.

Forgiveness differs from merely condoning an offense. To condone is to excuse by bringing oneself to ignore an offense; it’s to look the other way, even to the point of deluding oneself that perhaps the offense never happened. To forgive, by contrast, requires looking at the offense and the offender straight in the eye, face to face, and acknowledging all the evil and hurt they have wrought. To forgive is painful.

Forgiveness also differs from reconciliation. Forgiveness is an internal process by which people come to terms with their suffering and bitterness, and as a result are able to see their offenders in a more positive light. No longer seeking vengeance, they are now capable of moving forward with their own lives. Reconciliation demands a lot more. It entails the possibility of once more imagining a shared future with the offender and reestablishing trust. Thus, it’s perfectly understandable that even after forgiving, some people are unwilling to go the full journey toward reconciliation. It’s possible to forgive without reconciling. Yet although forgiveness and reconciliation may just be different stages in the same trajectory, there’s reason to believe that reconciliation is forgiveness’ most coveted fruit, its highest aspiration or perfection. So let’s not renounce reconciliation too easily and deprive ourselves of its benefits.

Most people turn to forgiveness seeking healing and interior growth initially. Psychotherapists describe a two-step process toward this goal. First is the need of the aggrieved to share their story in a safe, listening environment without being judged. The objective is not so much to receive sympathy or advice as the chance to get an oppressive load of their chest, literally to vent. By sharing the aggrieved are somehow able to put their pain into words and distance themselves from it. Next is the effort to consider the offender’s standpoint, expanding one’s perspective to at least catch a glimpse of the moral complexity behind hurtful decisions and actions. The aim is to allow some space for empathy, without discharging the offender from responsibility or shifting blame onto the victim.

What tends to be overlooked, however, is the mutual dependence for their success between the aggrieved person’s forgiveness and the aggressor’s “self-forgiveness.” Albeit through different paths, both have to be made whole again. To reach “self-forgiveness,” psychotherapists describe traversing different phases: responsibility, remorse, restoration, and renewal. Responsibility means personally owning up to the fault; remorse, embracing guilt; restoration, rebuilding the damage; and renewal, starting life afresh. Indeed, each phase has its own set of challenges, but I will only focus on the last two.

Restoration begins by humbly asking for pardon. Sometimes, full restoration, strict retribution is not possible; the dead cannot be brought back to life nor certain losses adequately compensated, for example. Both parties have to be realistic enough to acknowledge that. Otherwise, the only option is to descend into a bottomless spiral of revenge. That’s why victims and aggressors both have to pin their hopes on the possibility of renewal, when aggressors, from now on, solemnly commit themselves to working toward the victims’ wellbeing, over and above their own, in reparation. Renewal enables the offended to leave vengeful desires for thoughts of compassion, while permitting the offenders to abandon self-condemnation and recover self-respect.

In its forward-looking aspect, renewal is hardly distinguishable from reconciliation. As Arendt observed, drawing from Jesus’ teachings, vengeance is re-active, absolutely determined by past evils, while forgiveness (without ignoring or erasing the past) allows victims and aggressors to act anew, giving them freedom to shape the future afresh. Reconciliation is nothing else but building that future together, transforming former foe into a faithful and dear friend. 

Perhaps there’s nothing of which we stand in greater need in our families, organizations, and communities than forgiveness, weak and broken people as we are, despite our best intentions. Instead of giving in to outrage at offenses, canceling and calling each other out, let us take our chances at reconciliation. Not only is that a way of “drowning evil in an abundance of good,” but it also happens to be a sine qua non of ethical life and flourishing in a world less than ideal.

Rest

Rest is not only what’s left once you’ve done everything; it’s also a right. But to what?

Man was made to work, even more so, to rest. Rest is not only what’s left, after one has done their job and fulfilled their various duties. It’s not just to stop working, taking a momentary pause, as it were, to refresh and recharge, preparing for future endeavors. Neither is it simply to spend time, smugly enjoying the hard-earned fruits of one’s labor. 

Rest is also a right. But to what? 

Firstly, to leisure, what the ancient Greeks called “schole”, from which the modern English word “school” comes. So one went to “school” not for credentialing or job-training, but to learn how to properly engage in leisure, which was the mark of a cultivated man. Obviously, this opportunity wasn’t open to everyone, only to a privileged few (citizens or land-owning males) who had free time because they didn’t have to carry out servile tasks in farming, artisanry, and commerce. They could count on other people to do this for them. Such “division of labor” provided this class of school-going elites the chance to take part in apparently endless discussions about their natural surroundings and, above all, the city, giving rise to philosophy and politics. Note that it wasn’t at all necessary, to rest or to take part in leisure, to travel very far to some exotic place. Their idea of a holiday or vacation was very much a “staycation”; in any case, always within the confines of the city.  

A unique achievement of the Judeo-Christian tradition is to have extended the right to rest to all human beings, not only to the elites, as had occurred in perhaps all ancient civilizations. This was done in obedience to a divine precept admonishing everyone, represented by the chosen people, to imitate God who rested on the seventh day, after finishing the work of creation. So rest, now, was much more than just engaging in philosophical discussions, as the ancient Greeks did. It means to do like God does and to contemplate, leaving maybe pressing, but in the end ephemeral concerns aside. To rest is to try to live, in the measure possible, in God’s eternal present. 

How are we to do that? 

We rest by contemplating nature, which delights the senses and inspires the mind: “God looked upon all that He had made, and indeed, it was very good” (Gen 1:31). We also rest by entering in friendly dialogue with fellow human beings, starting with members of our own families, discovering with wonder similarities and differences among us of amazing richness. Yet more than anything else, we rest by contemplating God’s mystery, at once transcendent and intimate, in prayer. None more beautiful, none more powerful, none greater; the truest of friends, whose words, in loving conversation, at the same time satisfies and makes one hunger for more.

 

College, Post-Covid 19

I hope the global pandemic ends soon, because we’ve found a cure or discovered a vaccine. But until then, we’ll just have to learn to make do, despite life not being anywhere near normal. (Even those who claim otherwise know it.) What began as a health crisis has evolved into a full-blown systemic threat, affecting politics and international relations, the economy, and education, among others. I’ll be centering on the impact of the Covid 19 pandemic on college education and what we can reasonably expect from the short to the middle term. Most references will be to universities in English-speaking countries, although they would be relevant as well for institutions in Europe and in other industrialized regions. In any case, seats of higher learning elsewhere could benefit by keeping an eye on these developments. 

It’s common knowledge that the Chinese word for crisis, Wéijī, is actually composed of two characters, one meaning “danger”, and the other, “opportunity”. We also know the English “crisis” derives from the Greek verb “krínein”, meaning “to decide”, thereby indicating an occasion when the need for crucial choice or thoughtful judgement comes to fore. Let’s apply these cues to our analysis of college pre- and post-Covid.

Even before Covid-19 set in, college education both in North America and Europe was already in crisis, mainly for demographic reasons. In five years, the pool of applicants would have shrunken by a fourth, and by some estimates about 20% of US colleges, specially the smaller ones with less than a thousand students, may be forced to shut down. Part of the solution is to try to fill the halls with foreign students from developing countries, and in particular, China, who besides can be charged full tuition. My own institution, a medium-sized private university in northern Spain, has about a quarter of its students coming from abroad, mostly from Latin America.

A second factor refers to costs and financing, although perhaps this is more acute in the US. In the past forty years, tuition fees have risen by 260%, double the inflation rate, such that a four-year degree could easily cost between $200,000 from a private college, and $100,000 from a public one. University education, worth $5.8 billion in 2018, is Australia’s fourth largest export, after commodities such as coal, iron, and natural gas, and caters mostly to Asians. In Europe, the majority of universities are publicly funded, with none or very low fees, that can be paid off with cheap loans. But the problem then becomes finding a job. 

This was precisely the situation MOOCs (“Massive Online Open Courses”) sought to address in the early 2000s. Through the use of digital technologies, marginal costs for every nth user would practically disappear as college-level instruction was broadcast to millions. Such initiatives were not free from difficulties however, beginning with student motivation, retention and degree completion, as well as economic sustainability, all of which significantly improved once MOOCs started collecting fees, however minimal. 

Then came the Wuhan virus.

Covid-19 certainly did not cause all the troubles afflicting college education, but it served to exacerbate them. First by preventing classroom gatherings where most traditional instruction took place. The loss of personal contact was worsened by lockdowns or grave restrictions in freedom of movement amongst people scattered in different time zones across the globe. Many national borders are still closed and some warn they will remain that way at least until Christmas. For sure, not all international students will be able to return to school in September. Second is the economic fallout with all non-essential business put on hold. Not only government revenues, but private incomes as well have taken a big hit, such that students and their families begin to question the value of a college education. We know the price, but is it worth it? No one is having to grapple with this existential question as much as the Class of 2020, as they look for a job under the worst labor market conditions since the Great Depression.   

So how will college be transformed in the wake of Covid-19?

Pundits speak of at least three different models.

First is the “Cyborg University”, which is like MOOCs on steroids, offering everything online. The only difference now is the buy-in from BigTech, poised to partner with the best brands in education to cash in on the tremendous growth opportunities. Previous, not-for-profit joint ventures such as Harvard/MIT-EdX and Stanford-Udacity/Coursera could now morph into Udacity/Google-Amazon and Coursera/IBM. They’d pay star-professors handsomely for broadcast lectures while an army of TA-equivalents would be given a pittance for the nitty-gritty of student engagement. Once more this illustrates the “Matthew effect”: to those who have, more shall be given, while to those who have little, even that will be taken away. Presumably there’d be limited subject offerings, most of which will be skills-based and immediately job-friendly. 

Second is the “Parallel University” model with a premium offline and a standard online option. The University of Michigan and Georgia Institute of Technology, for instance, have gone down this route with some full degree programs. This formula introduces some sort of caste system in studies even in the same institution. 

Third is the temporary “Hybrid model” between online and offline teaching, without renouncing the residential college experience to the extent health conditions permit. On the one hand, international students may be stranded in their home countries, unable to travel, and on the other, locals may be caught in a lockdown or forced to self-isolate because they’re sick or have been in close quarters with someone who is. In any case, college facilities cannot simply expand to accommodate everyone while observing mandatory social distancing measures. The stop-gap alternative to classroom teaching then becomes virtual, online instruction, both in synchronous and asynchronous modes. But who would pay tens of thousands of dollars for what amounts, essentially, to a series of Zoom sessions? The hefty price tag would be extremely difficult to justify. So every effort must be taken to try to make up for the loss of personal engagement through staggered attendance, modified calendars, campus testing and tracing, social bubbles, and technology.

The dangers and opportunities among post-Covid college formulas are clear. Now how do we choose?

To decide which among the three models fits best, individuals should consider what they really pursue with a college education and why. For some, it might be mere credentialing, having a certificate they’re legally up to the job or function they wish to perform. For others, it might gaining some instruction, perhaps not much different from the information available from Wikipedia or the practical knowledge imparted from YouTube. But there will be some more who truly seek the full college experience, a period of intense learning and socialization with professors and classmates at a special developmental stage, not only to form a dense web of contacts to move forward professionally, but more importantly, to become the best version of themselves, intellectually and morally, and serve society.     

WFH in times of Covid-19

At some point between March and April, two-thirds of humanity was under lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and a significant portion was working, or struggling to work from home (WFH). 

What does this entail? What are its unique opportunities and challenges? Which coping strategies function best? And what does this portend for the future, or at least until specifics and a vaccine are discovered?

Working from home is a luxury

Working from home is an option, but only for a privileged few. For the majority in developing countries (say, India or the Philippines), many of whom were in the informal sector in the first place, it’s not at all feasible. The lockdown has been for them the fastest ticket to dependency and destitution.

Sheltering in place has made social inequalities among those living in Western, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) nations even starker. For those in “essential jobs”, meaning employed in supermarkets, healthcare, farms, meat-packing, transport, sanitation, and so forth, WFH is simply impossible. Ironically, “essential” here is a euphemism for work grossly undervalued. Despite their importance, these jobs are poorly paid, mostly carried out by women and immigrants, in precarious conditions, and depending on the countries (for instance, the US), without health insurance or unemployment benefits. Calling them “heroes” may make us feel better by expressing indebtedness and gratitude, but it does little to improve their plight. Healthcare workers in Spain, for example, would very much trade the round of applause at 8 pm for more effective “personal protection equipment” (PPE) which government has routinely failed to provide. So now there’s pot-banging all over the country. Many frontliners claim they’re not “heroes”, but ordinary folk trying to make a living. 

The government mandate to WFH translates for a good number into forced leaves with diminished earnings, if not entirely without pay, and for scores of millions, unemployment and loss of income. Already in these past two months we’ve witnessed the fastest rate of job destruction and bankruptcies in recent memory. Perhaps marginally better is the situation of some self-employed, freelancers, independent contractors, or participants in the “gig economy”, more used to flexible working conditions. Although it’s not the same when you’re in travel and hospitality, where demand is close to zero, as when you’re remotely processing a steady flow of medical, legal, or financial records.

So what does WFH actually mean for those who keep their jobs and are lucky to have decent internet connections?

In some respects, WFH is not completely new. “Telecommuting” was supposedly invented by people from NASA in the early 1970s, referring to employees who went to “satellite offices” instead of headquarters for motley reasons. Even in pre-Covid days, this work arrangement was already familiar to new mothers. In the US, eight percent of employees worked from home at least once a week, and two percent did so all the time. These were the better educated members of the workforce, a third of whom had college degrees. Yet despite technological advances, however, working from home still isn’t plausible for 60 percent of jobs, not just hairdressing. 

Once adjusted to the technicalities of Zoom, the biggest impact of working from home is the blurring of boundaries in space and time. The public (workplace, professional contacts, office hours) bleeds into the private (home, family, rest). The challenges of being constantly on call are compounded for those with young children abruptly thrust, with nary a warning, into distance-learning activities. And although fathers think they do their fair share of teaching and child-minding, 80 percent of mothers believe otherwise, taking this extra strain in their own careers. Then there’s managing cabin fever, one’s own and that of others, which can take a toll on relationships, especially between couples. 

The winners…

WFH is a game that has produced clear winners. Companies like Amazon and Microsoft have chalked up noteworthy gains in revenues during the pandemic, quickly reflected in skyrocketing stock prices. Amazon is even looking into hiring 100,000 more workers in fulfillment centers, all the better to deliver “hot” items such as toilet paper, hand sanitizers, bleach or disinfectants (non-ingestible!), masks, and groceries, especially baking products. Certain sectors in finance (Capital One, PayPal) and media (Omnicon) are registering higher levels of productivity, bolstered perhaps by savings in rent and travel. Uber presents an uneven picture, with UberEats, the food delivery business in an uptick, while the ride-sharing service is on a steep drop. Because of people staying in place, air quality, especially in cities, has largely improved, which of course benefits everyone.

Apart from avoiding contagion, home-workers are also able to cut down, maybe entirely, on commuting costs; in principle, they can also clock fewer work hours for the same pay. And entrepreneurs with enough capital can start a business with lower costs due to the depressed economy, or avail of cheaper, government-backed loans.

… and the losers 

We’ve already mentioned the biggest casualties among those who lost jobs or saw work hours drastically reduced, unable to WFH. It’s been the brick and mortar retail apocalypse (Neiman Marcus, J. Crew, Macy’s), and the worst nightmare for the global airline industry. As part of response and recovery plans, all sectors will have to reimagine themselves and their market relationships, from education (online teaching), to automotives (robot-made electric cars), from fashion (loungewear) to the restaurant industry (gourmet take-away).

But even those who remain gainfully employed suffer severe setbacks. Work is not just about earning a living; it’s also about having structure, order, and rhythm in our lives, cultivating a variety of social connections, and an opportunity for deep engagement with a larger community. The workplace could be for unattached millennials, for instance, the warp and woof of their identity. Social isolation can be devastating. In any case, for most individuals, the family alone is unable to supply these needs. WFH causes added stress by forcing people to juggle multiple roles, while persistently anxious over one’s future, and their family’s (the Class of 2020 might want other jobs besides contact-tracing). There’s a tendency to overcompensate, for fear of job loss or to demonstrate one’s worth. For those already disposed, this is more than enough to trigger burnout, depression, and other mental conditions.

With the excuse of monitoring productivity, employers can even make use (or abuse) of snooping software or surveillance technology on their home-workers. Unsurprisingly, employees could get back at this intrusiveness and resort to cheating, if only to prove bosses right. Thus, organizational trust goes on a free-fall when most needed. A valuable lesson in these circumstances is that loyalty cannot be imposed or trustworthiness bought.    

Making lemonade

When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, we are often told. This applies to WFH under Covid-19 as well.

Although trillion-dollar companies such as Amazon, Google, Facebook, and Twitter don’t seem to be in a hurry to get back to working from work, pushing return dates to the fall  or even to 2021, that’s not the case with the majority. This only shows the chasm that separates Silicon Valley winners from the rest who have become whiners by necessity.

Until targeted medicines and vaccines are discovered, we’re stuck with social distancing, which means we won’t go back to packing workers into crowded office spaces or much less to hot-desking. That’s why WeWork is going down the drain. Imagine the elevator wait times due to social distancing in office towers. Given the virus’ contagion cycles, some Israeli professors have proposed a staggered 10-4 work calendar, where employees can stay home for 10 days, then come to the office for 4, and still drive the transmission rate to zero. That would be a boon to vital, in-person work and services. Others suggest simply cutting down to a 30 hour workweek and keeping it that way. Productivity need not suffer, they argue, and while engaging in sophistry they claim, “more could work if everyone worked less.” In any case, because everyone grows tired, working more does not always mean working better.

Societies can rediscover the value of health as a public good and invest in healthcare benefits and care subsidies for dependents. Some economists even advocate putting a price on social distancing efforts and including it in the GDP.  

The possibility of exploring “Uberization” also seems promising. It consists of applying information technology to labor markets, such that we pay people for performing tasks rather than for holding jobs or titles. It tests the limits of transaction cost theory, according to which firms exist only because it can be more efficient to assign certain tasks in-house, that is, hierarchically or through authority, rather than contracting them in open markets. It may be rational for agents (buyers and sellers) to give up some freedom to be guaranteed better outcomes or results. Generally, this has worked for ride-sharing, although with substantial hidden costs, especially for drivers. But that would be a lot harder for receiving quality education, unless one’s happy getting by with Google and Wikipedia.

Successfully working from home depends on how well we’re able to relate through the physical and psychological distance to others, taking into account their embodied condition and the various roles they inhabit. Despite the fancy bells and whistles, virtual communication is no substitute for in-person dialogue. It misses out on all the nonverbal cues, such as context, empathy, and expressive force essential to genuine human understanding. It’s also helpful to realize individuals aren’t just workers but family and community members as well. Balancing the demands of these overlapping and intersecting roles through pre-set time and place allotments is too mechanistic. Instead, companies and workers ought to engage each other, deliberating on the values, priorities, and objectives they share. Once an agreement is reached, they’ll then be free to pursue these common goods responsibly, bearing in mind that work, wherever, whenever, is just a means to these ends.       

WFH in times of Covid-19

WFH

At some point between March and April, two-thirds of humanity was under lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and a significant portion was working, or struggling to work from home (WFH). 

What does this entail? What are its unique opportunities and challenges? Which coping strategies function best? And what does this portend for the future, or at least until specifics and a vaccine are discovered?

Working from home is a luxury

Working from home is an option, but only for a privileged few. For the majority in developing countries (say, India or the Philippines), many of whom were in the informal sector in the first place, it’s not at all feasible. The lockdown has been for them the fastest ticket to dependency and destitution.

Sheltering in place has made social inequalities among those living in Western, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) nations even starker. For those in “essential jobs”, meaning employed in supermarkets, healthcare, farms, meat-packing, transport, sanitation, and so forth, WFH is simply impossible. Ironically, “essential” here is a euphemism for work grossly undervalued. Despite their importance, these jobs are poorly paid, mostly carried out by women and immigrants, in precarious conditions, and depending on the countries (for instance, the US), without health insurance or unemployment benefits. Calling them “heroes” may make us feel better by expressing indebtedness and gratitude, but it does little to improve their plight. Healthcare workers in Spain, for example, would very much trade the round of applause at 8 pm for more effective “personal protection equipment” (PPE) which government has routinely failed to provide. So now there’s pot-banging all over the country. Many frontliners claim they’re not “heroes”, but ordinary folk trying to make a living. 

The government mandate to WFH translates for a good number into forced leaves with diminished earnings, if not entirely without pay, and for scores of millions, unemployment and loss of income. Already in these past two months we’ve witnessed the fastest rate of job destruction and bankruptcies in recent memory. Perhaps marginally better is the situation of some self-employed, freelancers, independent contractors, or participants in the “gig economy”, more used to flexible working conditions. Although it’s not the same when you’re in travel and hospitality, where demand is close to zero, as when you’re remotely processing a steady flow of medical, legal, or financial records.

So what does WFH actually mean for those who keep their jobs and are lucky to have decent internet connections?

In some respects, WFH is not completely new. “Telecommuting” was supposedly invented by people from NASA in the early 1970s, referring to employees who went to “satellite offices” instead of headquarters for motley reasons. Even in pre-Covid days, this work arrangement was already familiar to new mothers. In the US, eight percent of employees worked from home at least once a week, and two percent did so all the time. These were the better educated members of the workforce, a third of whom had college degrees. Yet despite technological advances, however, working from home still isn’t plausible for 60 percent of jobs, not just hairdressing. 

Once adjusted to the technicalities of Zoom, the biggest impact of working from home is the blurring of boundaries in space and time. The public (workplace, professional contacts, office hours) bleeds into the private (home, family, rest). The challenges of being constantly on call are compounded for those with young children abruptly thrust, with nary a warning, into distance-learning activities. And although fathers think they do their fair share of teaching and child-minding, 80 percent of mothers believe otherwise, taking this extra strain in their own careers. Then there’s managing cabin fever, one’s own and that of others, which can take a toll on relationships, especially between couples. 

The winners…

WFH is a game that has produced clear winners. Companies like Amazon and Microsoft have chalked up noteworthy gains in revenues during the pandemic, quickly reflected in skyrocketing stock prices. Amazon is even looking into hiring 100,000 more workers in fulfillment centers, all the better to deliver “hot” items such as toilet paper, hand sanitizers, bleach or disinfectants (non-ingestible!), masks, and groceries, especially baking products. Certain sectors in finance (Capital One, PayPal) and media (Omnicon) are registering higher levels of productivity, bolstered perhaps by savings in rent and travel. Uber presents an uneven picture, with UberEats, the food delivery business in an uptick, while the ride-sharing service is on a steep drop. Because of people staying in place, air quality, especially in cities, has largely improved, which of course benefits everyone.

Apart from avoiding contagion, home-workers are also able to cut down, maybe entirely, on commuting costs; in principle, they can also clock fewer work hours for the same pay. And entrepreneurs with enough capital can start a business with lower costs due to the depressed economy, or avail of cheaper, government-backed loans.

… and the losers 

We’ve already mentioned the biggest casualties among those who lost jobs or saw work hours drastically reduced, unable to WFH. It’s been the brick and mortar retail apocalypse (Neiman Marcus, J. Crew, Macy’s), and the worst nightmare for the global airline industry. As part of response and recovery plans, all sectors will have to reimagine themselves and their market relationships, from education (online teaching), to automotives (robot-made electric cars), from fashion (loungewear) to the restaurant industry (gourmet take-away).

But even those who remain gainfully employed suffer severe setbacks. Work is not just about earning a living; it’s also about having structure, order, and rhythm in our lives, cultivating a variety of social connections, and an opportunity for deep engagement with a larger community. The workplace could be for unattached millennials, for instance, the warp and woof of their identity. Social isolation can be devastating. In any case, for most individuals, the family alone is unable to supply these needs. WFH causes added stress by forcing people to juggle multiple roles, while persistently anxious over one’s future, and their family’s (the Class of 2020 might want other jobs besides contact-tracing). There’s a tendency to overcompensate, for fear of job loss or to demonstrate one’s worth. For those already disposed, this is more than enough to trigger burnout, depression, and other mental conditions.

With the excuse of monitoring productivity, employers can even make use (or abuse) of snooping software or surveillance technology on their home-workers. Unsurprisingly, employees could get back at this intrusiveness and resort to cheating, if only to prove bosses right. Thus, organizational trust goes on a free-fall when most needed. A valuable lesson in these circumstances is that loyalty cannot be imposed or trustworthiness bought.    

Making lemonade

When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, we are often told. This applies to WFH under Covid-19 as well.

Although trillion-dollar companies such as Amazon, Google, Facebook, and Twitter don’t seem to be in a hurry to get back to working from work, pushing return dates to the fall  or even to 2021, that’s not the case with the majority. This only shows the chasm that separates Silicon Valley winners from the rest who have become whiners by necessity.

Until targeted medicines and vaccines are discovered, we’re stuck with social distancing, which means we won’t go back to packing workers into crowded office spaces or much less to hot-desking. That’s why WeWork is going down the drain. Imagine the elevator wait times due to social distancing in office towers. Given the virus’ contagion cycles, some Israeli professors have proposed a staggered 10-4 work calendar, where employees can stay home for 10 days, then come to the office for 4, and still drive the transmission rate to zero. That would be a boon to vital, in-person work and services. Others suggest simply cutting down to a 30 hour workweek and keeping it that way. Productivity need not suffer, they argue, and while engaging in sophistry they claim, “more could work if everyone worked less.” In any case, because everyone grows tired, working more does not always mean working better.

Societies can rediscover the value of health as a public good and invest in healthcare benefits and care subsidies for dependents. Some economists even advocate putting a price on social distancing efforts and including it in the GDP.  

The possibility of exploring “Uberization” also seems promising. It consists of applying information technology to labor markets, such that we pay people for performing tasks rather than for holding jobs or titles. It tests the limits of transaction cost theory, according to which firms exist only because it can be more efficient to assign certain tasks in-house, that is, hierarchically or through authority, rather than contracting them in open markets. It may be rational for agents (buyers and sellers) to give up some freedom to be guaranteed better outcomes or results. Generally, this has worked for ride-sharing, although with substantial hidden costs, especially for drivers. But that would be a lot harder for receiving quality education, unless one’s happy getting by with Google and Wikipedia.

Successfully working from home depends on how well we’re able to relate through the physical and psychological distance to others, taking into account their embodied condition and the various roles they inhabit. Despite the fancy bells and whistles, virtual communication is no substitute for in-person dialogue. It misses out on all the nonverbal cues, such as context, empathy, and expressive force essential to genuine human understanding. It’s also helpful to realize individuals aren’t just workers but family and community members as well. Balancing the demands of these overlapping and intersecting roles through pre-set time and place allotments is too mechanistic. Instead, companies and workers ought to engage each other, deliberating on the values, priorities, and objectives they share. Once an agreement is reached, they’ll then be free to pursue these common goods responsibly, bearing in mind that work, wherever, whenever, is just a means to these ends.